Performance improvement of high speed steel tools.
In order to support the global demand for high-speed steel tools, cutting tool manufacturers have increased their investment, including increased R&D investment. These investments have made high-speed steel tools more reliable, resulting in improved quality, lower production costs and shorter production cycles. Improved matrix materials, including powder metallurgy and coatings, further enhance the performance of high speed steel tools.
A typical high speed steel composition contains 4% chromium, 6% tungsten, 5% molybdenum, 2% vanadium, 1% carbon. High-speed steels of different materials have different elements added, and as a result, tool materials with high toughness are less likely to break.
The commonly used cobalt-rich high-speed steel (HSS-E) has a slightly different composition content, with a cobalt content increase of 5%-8%, a molybdenum content of 9%, and a tungsten content of 1.5%. Compared with ordinary high-speed steel, this composition content difference can lead to higher red hardness and wear resistance. In general, more cobalt-containing tools are used for special applications.
When milling, high-speed steel tools prevent mechanical shock at the teeth and overcome thermal shock due to uneven lubrication.
Thanks to the high-strength steel's strength characteristics, toolmakers can produce extremely sharp cutting edges, making difficult-to-machine materials easier to machine and reducing work hardening of austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys.
With the appropriate tool structure, the workpiece material can be sheared rather than extruded during cutting, extending tool life and reducing cutting temperatures. The correct tool design also reduces cutting forces and reduces the cutting power of the machine.
From the perspective of tool life, high-speed steel performance is excellent in interrupted cutting. However, the limited cutting speed range is much lower than that of cemented carbide tools. From the perspective of cutting speed and efficiency, cobalt-rich high-speed steel (HSS-E) and powder metallurgy high-speed steel (PM HSS) can fill the gap between ordinary high-speed steel and carbide tools.
High-speed steel has been the industry's conventional cutting tool material, but this does not mean that it has stopped developing and improving since its application in the late 19th century. The development of cobalt-rich high-speed steel (HSS-E) and powder metallurgy cobalt-rich high-speed steel can bring higher alloying element content and special performance combination, which can improve the toughness, wear resistance and hardness of the tool.
The coating significantly improves tool life and further enhances the performance of high speed steel tools in high productivity with high cutting speeds and high feed rates. Coated tools are especially important for dry cutting, difficult machining or hardened material cutting. The coating improves the surface hardness of the tool, enhances resistance to crater wear, reduces friction for chip removal, reduces cutting heat and improves the surface quality of the workpiece being machined. For example, TiAlN coated cobalt-rich high-speed steel (HSS-E) tools are resistant to high temperatures and are suitable for dry-cut cast iron, while TiAlN coated powder metallurgy cobalt-rich high-speed steel tools (HSS-E-PM) are suitable for cutting medium And higher hardness alloys.
Therefore, in the face of newer, more technologically advanced materials, high-speed steel can still stand on the market. Thanks to the new coatings, adjustment components and new technologies, high-speed steel has become more powerful after years of development, making it an important tool material in the metal cutting industry.